Borrelia Persistence

Potential Persistent Borrelia Infection and Response to Antibiotic Therapy; a Clinical Case Study and Review of Recent Literature

Cozette Moysa, Ross Murtagh and John S. Lambert


Peer Reviewed Evidence of Persistence of Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and Tick-Borne Diseases 

A list of over 700 peer reviewed articles that support the evidence of persistence of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. It is organized into different categories—general, psychiatric, dementia, autism and congenital transmission.   Link here 


Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease.

Middelveen MJ, Sapi E, Burke J, Filush KR, Franco A, Fesler MC, Stricker RB


Plasticity in early immune evasion strategies of a bacterial pathogen 

Quentin BernardAlexis A. SmithXiuli YangJuraj KociShelby D. FoorSarah D. CramerXuran ZhuangJennifer E. DwyerYi-Pin LinEmmanuel F. MongodinAdriana MarquesJohn M. LeongJuan Anguita and Utpal Pal 


Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding

Monica E. Embers , Nicole R. Hasenkampf, Mary B. Jacobs, Amanda C. Tardo, Lara A. Doyle-Meyers, Mario T. Philipp, Emir Hodzic  


Resurgence of persisting non-cultivable Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice. 

Hodzic E, Imai D, Feng S, Barthold SW



Late Disseminated Lyme Disease Associated Pathology and Spirochete Persistence Posttreatment in Rhesus Macaques 

Nicholas A. Crossland , Xavier Alvarez , Monica E. Embers



Sleeper cells: the stringent response and persistence in the Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi enzootic cycle.  

Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Bugrysheva JV, Newman SA


Chronic Lyme Disease: A Working Case Definition

Stricker RB* and Fesler MC


Review of evidence for immune evasion and persistent infection in Lyme disease

Keith Berndtson


Ceftriaxone Pulse Dosing Fails to Eradicate Biofilm-like Microcolony B. burgdorferi Persisters Which Are Sterilized by Daptomycin/Doxycycline/Cefuroxime Drug Combination without Pulse Dosing

Jie Feng, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi and Ying Zhang


An Immune Evasion Mechanism for Spirochetal Persistence in Lyme Borreliosis 

Fang Ting Liang, Mary B. Jacobs, , and Mario T. Philipp


 Transformation of cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to normal, mobile spirochetes.

Brorson O,Brorson SH.

Infection.1997 Jul-Aug;25(4):240-6.


Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, forms drug-tolerant persister cells.

Bijaya Sharma,Autumn V. Brown,Nicole E. Matluck,Linden T. Hu andKim Lewis


Identification of novel activity against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters using an FDA approved drug library

Jie Feng, Ting Wang, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, David Sullivan, Paul G Auwaerter and Ying Zhang

Table 1. Activity of top 27 active hits with better activity than the current Lyme disease antibiotics against stationary-phase B. burgdorferi persisters 


Identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi from the NCI compound collection

Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang and Ying Zhang


Persister mechanisms in Borrelia burgdorferi: implications for improved intervention

Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang and Ying Zhang


 Eradication of Biofilm-Like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime

Jie Feng, Megan Weitner, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang and Ying Zhang*
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA


Are Mycobacterium Drugs Effective for Treatment Resistant Lyme Disease, TickBorne Co-Infections, and Autoimmune Disease?

Richard I. Horowitz* and Phyllis R. Freeman


Antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi recognized during Lyme disease. Appearance of a new immunoglobulin M response and expansion of the immunoglobulin G response late in the illness.

Craft JE, Fischer DK, Shimamoto GT, Steere AC.
‘The appearance of a new IgM response and the expansion of the IgG response late in the illness, and the lack of such responses in patients with early disease alone, suggest that B. burgdorferi remains alive throughout the illness.’