Borrelia and Alzheimer’s

Detecting Borrelia Spirochetes: A Case Study With Validation Among Autopsy Specimens

Shiva Kumar Goud Gadila, Gorazd Rosoklija,  Andrew J. Dwork, Brian A. Fallon, and Monica E. Embers

A Novel Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on the Pathology and Microbiology

Alzheimer’s disease: A Chronic Infection

Herbert B. Allen 

2020_BP_5781D-Complete Book-E-book


Microbes and Alzheimer’s Disease 

Authors: Ruth Itzhaki Douglas Kell  And 31 others


 Alzheimer’s Disease: A Novel Hypothesis Integrating Spirochetes, Biofilm, and the Immune System

Herbert B. Allen, Diego Morales, Krister Jones and Suresh Joshi


Bacterial Amyloid and DNA are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques 

Miklossy, Judith – Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 6 Published 13 June 2016


The lack of correlation between the incidence of Lyme disease and deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease cannot reflect the lack of involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi in Alzheimer’s dementia 

Judith Miklossy, Director, Prevention Alzheimer International Foundation, International Alzheimer Research Center, Martigny-Croix, Switzerland


Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’sdisease.

Miklossy J.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2015 Apr 16;7:46. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00046. eCollection 2015. Review.


Bacterial infection and Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis.

Maheshwari P, Eslick GD.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(3):957-66. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140621.


A study on the association between infectious burden and Alzheimer’s disease.

Bu XL, Yao XQ, Jiao SS, Zeng F, Liu YH, Xiang Y, Liang CR, Wang QH, Wang X, Cao HY, Yi X, Deng B, Liu CH, Xu J, Zhang LL, Gao CY, Xu ZQ, Zhang M, Wang L, Tan XL, Xu X, Zhou HD, Wang YJ.

Eur J Neurol. 2014 Jun 9. doi: 10.1111/ene.12477. [Epub ahead of print]


Lyme neuroborreliosis and dementia.

Blanc F, Philippi N, Cretin B, Kleitz C, Berly L, Jung B, Kremer S, Namer IJ, Sellal F, Jaulhac B, de Seze J.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;41(4):1087-93. doi: 10.3233/JAD-130446.


Chronic or late lyme neuroborreliosis: analysis of evidence compared to chronic or late neurosyphilis.

Miklossy J.

Open Neurol J. 2012;6:146-57. doi: 10.2174/1874205X01206010146. Epub 2012 Dec 28.


Emerging roles of pathogens in Alzheimer disease.

Miklossy J.

Expert Rev Mol Med. 2011 Sep 20;13:e30. doi: 10.1017/S1462399411002006. Review.


Alzheimer’s disease – a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch’s and Hill’s criteria.

Carter CJ.

ISRN Neurol. 2011;2011:394678. doi: 10.5402/2011/394678. Epub 2011 Jul 12.


Alzheimer’s disease Braak Stage progressions: reexamined and redefined as Borrelia infection transmission through neural circuits.

MacDonald AB.

Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(4):822-5. Epub 2006 Oct 20.


Spirochetal cyst forms in neurodegenerative disorders,…hiding in plain sight.

MacDonald AB.

Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(4):819-32. Epub 2006 Jul 7.


Plaques of Alzheimer’s disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme diseasespirochete.

MacDonald AB.

Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(3):592-600. Epub 2006 May 3.


Lyme disease associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Meer-Scherrer L, Chang Loa C, Adelson ME, Mordechai E, Lobrinus JA, Fallon BA, Tilton RC.

Curr Microbiol. 2006 Apr;52(4):330-2. Epub 2006 Mar 9.


Transfection “Junk” DNA – a link to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease?

MacDonald AB.

Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(6):1140-1. Epub 2006 Feb 14.


Beta-amyloid deposition and Alzheimer’s type changes induced by Borrelia spirochetes.

Miklossy J, Kis A, Radenovic A, Miller L, Forro L, Martins R, Reiss K, Darbinian N, Darekar P, Mihaly L, Khalili K.

Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Feb;27(2):228-36.


Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease.

Miklossy J, Khalili K, Gern L, Ericson RL, Darekar P, Bolle L, Hurlimann J, Paster BJ.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2004 Dec;6(6):639-49; discussion 673-81.


[New aspects of the pathogenesis of lyme disease].

Zajkowska JM, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T.

Przegl Epidemiol. 2002;56 Suppl 1:57-67. Review. Polish.


Molecular and immunological evidence of oral Treponema in the human brain and their association with Alzheimer’s disease.

Riviere GR, Riviere KH, Smith KS.

Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Apr;17(2):113-8.


Alzheimer’s disease–a spirochetosis?

Miklossy J.

Neuroreport. 1993 Jul;4(7):841-8.


Borreliosis and Alzheimer’s disease.

Dickson DW.

Hum Pathol. 1987 Dec;18(12):1303-4. No abstract available.


Concurrent neocortical borreliosis and Alzheimer’s disease.

MacDonald AB, Miranda JM.

Hum Pathol. 1987 Jul;18(7):759-61.


Alzheimer’s Disease: A Novel Hypothesis Integrating Spirochetes, Biofilm, and the Immune System

Herbert B. Allen*, Diego Morales, Krister Jones and Suresh Joshi
Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
Allen et al.,J Neuroinfect Dis 2016, 7:1